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Case studies

The case studies presented in this section provide examples of technical evidence and analysis that may assist with the investigation of other bronzes. 

Volume 7: Physical evidences

This page provides an overview of methods and techniques for the examination and analysis of cast bronze sculpture. It starts from the physical evidences you have been observing on a bronze sculpture, and tries to guide you in both their identification and their possible meaning regarding the fabrication process. Depending on what you are looking at, external or internal surface, interior of the sculpture, etc., please click on the appropriate link in the Table of contents at the top right of the page (under construction, so far, only chapter 2 si being implemented).

Technical FAQs

The objective of this section is to help addressing frequently asked technique-related questions one may have when studying a bronze scultpure.

In order to list most common questions, the CAST:ING Scientific committee members have put together some of their own frequently asked questions (FAQ) that they would like to share regarding bronze and bronze production.

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The vocabulary below focuses on technical terms associated with bronze sculpture.

Volume 4 : videos


The following videos illustrate different casting processes, different steps, different workshops.

Direct lost wax casting

De VriesAdrian de Vries’s Bronze Casting Technique

Direct lost wax casting (a Getty film, 8’ 38’’)


Visual atlas of features
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Volume 2 : Analytical techniques

Volume 2 of the Guidelines aims to inform both specialists and non-specialists about a wide variety of analytical techniques that may be usefully applied to the study of bronze sculpture. It is divided into 8 chapters. Measurements are discussed in the first chapter. Imaging techniques concern a wide variety of methods from photography to radiography including surface metrology. The third chapter focuses on bulk metal analysis, whereas chapter 4 is devoted to surface layers (patina, gilding, etc).

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