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This page offers some bibliographical references on techniques of bronze statuary sorted by period (to be completed). A much more comprehensive list of bibliographical references on techniques of bronze statuary is continuously being implemented and updated through a shared Zotero file (restricted access).

Note that a synthesis on techniques of bronze sculpture has been drawn period by period during the CAST:ING launch meeting, October 2015 (restricted access).



Descamps-Lequime, S. 2014. 'The color of Bronze polychromy and the Aesthetics of Bronze Surfaces', in Power and pathos. Bronze sculpture of the Hellenistic World. Daehner, J. M., and Lapatin, K., eds., Los Angeles. 150-166.

Formigli, E. 1999. I grandi bronzi antichi : le fonderie e le tecniche di lavorazione dall'età arcaica al Rinascimento.

Maish, J. 2000. 'Radiographic examination of ancient bronzes: The applicability of industrial casting standards', in From the Parts to the Whole: Acta of the 13th International Bronze Congress, Held at Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 28-June 1, 1996. Mattusch, C. C., Brauer, A., and Knudsen, S. E., eds., Journal of Roman Archaeology. Supplementary Series, no. 39, Portsmouth, R.I. 207-214.

Mattusch, C. C. 1996. The Fire of Hephaistos: Large Classical Bronzes from North American Collections. Cambridge.

Mille, B. 2007. 'Etude technique du cheval de bronze de Neuvy-en-Sullias', in Le cheval et la danseuse, à la redécouverte du trésor de Neuvy-en-Sullias, catalogue de l'exposition présentée au musée des Beaux-Arts d'Orléans du 13 mars au 26 août 2007. Gorget, C., and Guillaumet, J.-P., eds., Paris. 88-99 et 264-265.

Peltz, U. '"Xantener Knabe" - Technologieforschung zu einer antike Grossbronze'. Archäometrie und Denkmalpflege, DBM, Bochum, 15-18 sept 2010 pp. 102-104.


Medieval Europe

Carruba, A. M. 2006. La lupa capitolina, un bronzo medievale. Roma.

Dandridge, P. 2006. 'Exquisite objects, prodigious technique. Aquamanilia, vessels of the Middle Ages'. Lions, Dragons, and Other Beasts: Aquamanilia of the Middle Ages, Vessels for Church and Table, Exh. cat. New York and New Haven: pp. 35-56.

Drescher, H. 1993. 'Zur Herstellungstechnik mittelalterlicher Bronzen aus Goslar, der Marktbrunnen, der neugefundene Bronze-Vogel-Grief vom Kaiserhaus und der Kaiserstuhl', in Goslar.  Bergstadt-Kaiserstadt in Geschichte und Kunst. Bericht über ein wissenschaftliches Symposion in Goslar vom 5. bis 8. Oktober 1989. Steigerwald, F., ed., Göttingen. 251–301.

Thomas, N., and Bourgarit, D. 2014. 'Les techniques de production des batteurs et fondeurs mosans au Moyen Age (XIIe-XVIe siècles)', in L'or des dinandiers. Fondeurs et batteurs mosans au Moyen Age. Thomas, N., Leroy, I., and Plumier, J. d., eds., Cahiers de la MPPM n°7, Bouvignes-Dinant. 43-63.


Modern and Early Modern Europe

Bassett, J., and Fogelman, P. 1997. Looking at European Sculpture: A Guide to Technical Terms. Los Angeles.

Beale, A. 1975. 'A Technical view of Nineteenth-century sculpture'. Metamorphoses in Nineteenth-Century Sculpture: pp. 28-55.

Beentjes, T. 'The Casting of Western Scultpure during the XIXth century: sand casting versus lost wax casting'. Métal à Ciel ouvert : Outdoor metallic sculpture from the XIXth to the early XXth century,Paris  pp. 120-129.

Bewer, F. G. 1995. 'Studying the technology of Renaissance bronzes', in Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology IV: Symposium Held May 16-21, 1994, Cancun, Mexico. Druzik, J. R., Galván Madrid, J. L., Freestone, I. C., and Wheeler, G. S., eds., Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 352, Warrendale, PA. 701-709.

Bourgarit, D., Bassett, J., Bewer, F. G., Bresc-Bautier, G., Malgouyres, P., and Scherf, G. eds., 2014, French Bronze Sculpture: Materials and Techniques 16th - 18th Century: London, Archetype

Bresc-Bautier, G., and Scherf, G. eds., 2008, Bronzes français de la Renaissance au siècle des lumières: Paris, Musée du Louvre; Somogy, 534 p.

Lamouche, E. 2013. 'Fondeurs, artistes et artisans du bronze à Rome (1585-1625). unpublished PhD Thesis, Université de Picardie - Jules Verne.

Lebon, E. 2012. Fonte au sable. Fonte à la cire perdue : Histoire d’une rivalité. Paris

Morigi, G., and Morigi, L. 2008. 'Note tecniche sul restauro del monumento a Bartolomeo Colleoni di Andrea del Verrocchio', in L' industria artistica del bronzo del Rinascimento a Venezia e nell'Italia settentrionale. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi (Venezia, 23-24 ottobre 2007). Ceriana, M., and Avery, V., eds. 459-479.

Motture, P. ed. 2003. 'Large bronzes in the Renaissance', Yale University Press

Smith, D. 2013. 'Technical characteristics of bronze statuettes from the workshops of Antonio and Giovanni Francesco Susini', in The Renaissance workshop. Saunders, D., Spring, M., and Meek, A., eds., London. 29-41.

Stone, R. E. 1981. 'Antico and the development of bronze casting in Italy at the end of the Quattrocento'. Metropolitan Museum Journal 16: pp. 87-116.

Sturman, S. G. 2013. 'Replication and variation: Roccatagliata and the female nude', in The Renaissance workshop. Saunders, D., Spring, M., and Meek, A., eds., London. 20-28.

Texier, A. ed. 2014. ' Métal à ciel ouvert : La sculpture métallique d'extérieur du XIXe au début du XXe siècle'. Paris. Icomos France

Warren, J. 2010. 'Beauty & Power: Renaissance and Baroque Bronzes from the Peter Marino Collection', London. Wallace collection

Welter, J.-M. 2008. 'Les bronzes français du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle : est-ce du bronze ?', in Bronzes français de la Renaissance au Siècle des lumières. Bresc-Bautier, G., and Scherf, G. d., eds., Paris 42-45.


Asian world

Lefèvre, V. 'L'application de la norme dans les bronzes de l'Inde du Sud : aspects techniques'. La norme et son application dans le monde indien,Paris, 28-29 janvier 1999, pp. 221-233.Reedy, C. L. 1997 Himalayan bronzes : technology, style and choices. Newark.

Reedy, C. L., and Harlacher, S. 2007. 'Elemental composition of Sri Lankan bronzes: technological style and change', in Scientific Research on the Sculptural Arts of Asia, proceedings of the third Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art. Douglas, J. G., Jett, P., and Winter, P., eds., London. 63-74.

Strahan, D. K. 1997. 'Bronze casting in Thailand', in The Sacred Sculpture of Thailand, dir. Woodward Jr. H.W., Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, chap. II, 27-41.

Strahan, D. 'An Enligthened Journey: Transitions in Casting of Chinese Buddhist Images'. Fifth Forbes Symposium, Studies of Ancient Asian Metallurgy using Scientific Methods,Freer Gallery of Art, Washington DC (28-29th October 2010)
 pp. 73-82.

Vincent, B., and Bourgarit, D. 'Khmer Bronze Metallurgy during the Angkorian Period (12th-13th Century): Technical Investigation of a New Selected Corpus of Bronze Artifacts from the Phnom Penh National Museum'. Fifth Forbes Symposium, Studies of Ancient Asian Metallurgy using Scientific Methods,Freer Gallery of Art, Washington DC (28-29th October 2010)
 pp. 124-153.



Garenne-Marot, L., and Mille, B. 2007. 'Copper-based metal in the Inland Niger delta: metal and technology at the time of the Empire of Mali', in Metals and Mines. La Niece, S., Hook, D., and Craddock, P. T., eds. 159-169.

Plankensteiner, B. 2008. 'The contemporary production of "Antique" Benin bronzes in Benin City and Cameroon', in Original - Copy - Fake? Examining the authenticity of Ancient works of art - focusing on African and Asian Bronzes and Terracottas. Pernicka, E., and Berswordt-Wallrab (von), S. d., eds., Mainz. 178-190.


Modern casting

Campbell, J. 2011. Complete Casting Handbook. Oxford Waltham.

Gierdziejewski, K. 1963. Vocabulary of Foundry Practice, In Six Languages: English, Czech, German, French, Polish, Russian. Oxford; New York.

Palmer, R. H. 1929. Foundry Practice: A Text Book for Executives, Molders, Students and Apprentices. New York.

Rama, J.-P. 1988. Le bronze d'art et ses techniques. Dourdan.